DNA | Health
DNA | Health is great foundation test to combine with one of our other DNA tests. It can help you better understand your health risks and how to prevent them.
The 8 key areas that could lead to a chronic illness that this test looks at:
- Lipid Metabolism: High cholesterol potential and whether medication will help reduce raised cholesterol
- DNA Methylation: potential DNA damage risks
- Detoxification: key enzymes needed for effective detoxification
- Inflammation: inflammation, along with oxidative stress, are 2 key markers for almost all chronic illnesses
- Oxidative stress: this can lead to premature ageing, both inside and outside of your body
- Bone health: Osteoporosis
- Insulin sensitivity: risk of blood sugar and insulin imbalance risks associated with a wide variety including diabetes
- Food responsiveness and sensitivity: lactose intolerance, caffeine processing, salt sensitivity and blood pressure and iron overload disorders
Armed with this invaluable information, you can eliminate future health risks by carefully planning a life-long diet, exercise, supplement and general wellbeing plan that works to keep at bay the diseases to which you are susceptible.
DNA | Diet
Have you ever followed a diet to the letter and not seen the benefits? The answer to that question is probably yes, as everybody is different, and there is no universal diet that works for everyone.
One of the first products of its kind in the world, DNA | Diet is a test designed to help you manage your weight in a healthy and effective way. It does this by giving you and your healthcare practitioner the information you need to design a personalised weight management plan based on your genetic makeup.
Your genes offer valuable information about how your body reacts to carbohydrates, saturated fats and intensity of exercise, allowing for extreme personalisation of your eating plan to suit your needs.
DNA | Diet tests several well-researched gene variations that impact metabolism, absorption and storage of fats and carbohydrates, as well as eating behaviour. Research shows that everyone responds differently to different food combinations and there isn’t one correct way of eating for everyone.
With the information gleaned from your DNA | Diet test, you can understand how your body will respond to the three most effective healthy eating plans. i.e. Low Fat, Mediterranean, and Low Carbohydrate. Once we have your results, we will provide a detailed report with recommendations that include dietary changes and an exercise programme.
Gene variations associated with diet, exercise, weight management, metabolism, insulin sensitivity, satiety and feeding behaviour.
Benefits of DNA | Diet
- Provides strategies for weight management based on genetic makeup
- Provides motivation for people looking to lose weight
- Provides an understanding of why previous weight-management programs may have been unsuccessful
- Provides insight into which diet type (i.e. Mediterranean-style, low carbohydrate, low-fat diet) may be most suited to you, based on your genotype
DNA | Estrogen
Did you know that approximately 80% of breast cancers occur in women with no family history? Pretty terrifying, right?
Estrogen positively and negatively affects the functioning of several estrogen-sensitive target tissues such as breast, ovarian, uterus, bones and brain cells.
Research shows that an increased lifetime exposure to estrogen, along with the production of harmful estrogen metabolites in the liver, are strong risk indicators for developing breast and other estrogen-positive cancers.
Gene variations associated with a reduced ability to detoxify estrogen, the potential for DNA damage, the risk from environmental carcinogens including the contraceptive Pill and IVF.
Benefits of the DNA | Estrogen test
- Provides information that can be used to assess your risk for inefficient estrogen detox, and estrogen associated imbalances and illnesses
- Includes key genes involved in the making of estrogen and the breakdown (metabolism) of estrogen in Phase I and Phase II liver detoxification
- Offers direction on how to personalise your diet, supplement, environment and lifestyle choices to improve how your body metabolises estrogen
- Young women considering going on the contraceptive Pill. It can help them better understand: 1. Their body's ability to detox estrogen. 2. Whether the Pill maybe contribute to estrogen excess and associated health issues. 3. If her body is more prone to generating DNA-damaging estrogen metabolites from estrogen.
- Women who suffer from estrogen-dominant conditions such as endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome and uterine fibroid tumours
- Women considering oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy or bio-identical hormone supplementation
- Women who are considering in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) which involves high doses of sex hormones
- Men who have estrogen excess resulting in 'moobs' (male boobs), cellulite, weight gain around their hips and thighs, infertility, increased prostate cancer risk, and/or where biochemistry tests have shown raised levels of estrogen and estrogen metabolites, or low levels of testosterone and progesterone in relation to estrogen
- Men and woman who have had a longer lifetime exposure to estrogen such as a woman who started menstruating earlier than normal
- Men or women with a family history of breast, ovarian, colon or prostate cancer which were caused by estrogen. This test does not, however, test for BRCA mutations. It is for cancers where nutrition, environment and lifestyle choices are the suspected cause.
- People who have had an estrogen-receptor positive cancer
Phase I of estrogen detoxification in the liver
A Phase I cytochrome P450 enzyme that converts environmental procarcinogens into reactive intermediates that have carcinogenic effects. It is further involved in the oxidative metabolism of estrogens.
Catalyses the 4-hydroxylation of estradiol and active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and arylamines.
Catalyses reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and other lipids as an integral part of the estrogen metabolism pathway.
Provides antioxidant activity within the cell, necessary for decreasing oxidative damage caused by reactive estrogen metabolites.
Phase II of estrogen detoxification in the liver
Responsible for the removal of xenobiotics, carcinogens, and products of oxidative stress, which include reactive estrogen metabolites.
A member of a superfamily of proteins that catalyse the conjugation of reduced glutathione, and is responsible for removal of reactive products of estrogen metabolism.
Influences the levels of certain hormones and is involved in the methylation and inactivation of catechol estrogens.
MTHFR is a key enzyme in the folate metabolism pathway - directing folate from the diet either to DNA synthesis or homocysteine re-methylation. Decreased MTHFR enzyme activity has been associated with increased premenopausal breast cancer risk with longer duration of estrogen exposure.
Involved in the inactivation of estrogens and bio-activation of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Quinone Reductase is primarily involved in the detoxification of potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic quinones derived from tobacco smoke, diet and estrogen metabolism.
Factor V Leiden gene mutation is characterised by a poor anticoagulant response to Activated Protein C and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. This gene is included because estrogen excess or dominance (more estrogen than progesterone) can increase the risk of clotting. Increased estrogen coupled with a factor V mutation can lead to an increased risk of clotting or thrombosis on the contraceptive Pill and on HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy).
DNA | Mind
DNA Mind tests for genetic variations associated with changes in key biological areas that affect mental health. Weaknesses in these areas, together with environmental factors, increase risk for development of disorders related to mental health. The areas of mental health reported in DNA Mind include: Neurodegenerative disorders, mood disorders, and addictive behaviour.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) causes a slight, but noticeable and measurable decline in cognitive abilities, including memory and thinking skills. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment are at an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) or another dementia. Altered functioning of specific biological areas has been related to increased risk of MCI as well as late-onset AD.
The genes analysed are APOE, CRP, IL-1, IL-6, TNFA, COMT, BDNF which are involved in either lipid metabolism, inflammation, dopaminergic and neurotrophic processes.
Mood disorders are psychological disorders that are characterized by the elevation or lowering of an individual’s mood, to the extent that it can interfere with everyday life for an extended period of time. The specific mood disorders reported include bipolar, depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.
The genes associated with mood disorders include CRP, IL-1, IL-6, TNFA, MTHFR, MTR, COMT, BDNF, 1A HTR1A, FKBP5, OXTR, CACNA1C, ANK3, GSK3B and are analysed as part of inflammation, methylation, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, serotonergic, stress response, cell signalling and WNT signalling.
Addictive behaviour can manifest in a number of disorders, which are complex in their aetiology and are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Genetics and addictive areas of the association include behavioural disorders such as eating disorders (binge eating), ‘adrenaline seeking’, and risk-taking behaviour. Substance use disorders include risk of alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and opioid dependence. This area will also report on psychosis response from cannabis use.
The genes associated with addictive behaviours are CHRNA3, CHRNA5, CNR1, FAAH, AKT1, DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, COMT, OPRM1, BDNF, SLC6A4 and GABRA2. These genes are involved in cell signalling, endocannabinoid, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, serotonergic and stress response processes.
Buccal (cheek) lining swab - this is just a simple, painless firm rub with a long earbud (the swab) on the inside of your cheek.
Average processing time
The science behind these DNA reports
Once the DNAlysis lab receives your DNA sample, they use a process called Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to copy the DNA in your genes many times over, so that they have ample material with which to analyse your genetic material. They then look for unique DNA sequences in your genes, and if they spot changes from the norm, they mark those as risk factors.
Over the years, they have noticed who people that show variations in the gene markers involved in carcinogen metabolism, metabolism of steroid hormones and detoxification, are often part of a subpopulation of women and men with higher lifetime exposure to estrogens, estrogen metabolites and other carcinogens.
By understanding this connection and your unique genetic variability, they can make a holistic assessment of your risks associated with inefficient estrogen detox and provide practical advice on how to reduce these risks.
You can then pair your results with our advanced, home-based hormone metabolites biochemistry tests to measure and track your estrogen detox.
It may sound like something out of a sci-fi movie, but genetic testing is a powerful health tool that can give you a deep understanding of how your body works.
At the heart of it is the molecule DNA. Every single cell in our bodies – from our heart to skin, blood and bone – contains a complete set of our DNA. This powerful molecule carries our genetic code and determines all manner of traits, from our eye colour to aspects of our personalities and, of course, our health.
Interestingly, 99.9% of the DNA from two people is identical. It’s the other 0.1% of DNA code sequences that make us unique.
What are genes?
Genes are segments of DNA that contain the instructions your body needs to make each of the many thousands of proteins required for life. Each gene is comprised of thousands of combinations of ‘letters’ which make up your genetic code. The code gives the instructions to make the proteins required for proper development and function.
What are gene variations?
An example of a genetic variation is that one ‘letter’ may be replaced by another. These variations can lead to changes in the resulting proteins being made. For example, a ‘C’ may be changed to a ‘G’ at a point in the genetic code. When the variation affects only one genetic ‘letter’ it is called a 'Single Nucleotide Polymorphism', or 'SNP' (pronounced “snip”).
Variations can however also affect more than one ‘letter’. Genetic tests look at specific chromosomes, genes or proteins, and the variations that occur within them, to make observations about disease or disease risk, body processes or physical traits.
Are gene variations bad?
In general, variations should not be considered good or bad. Rather, genetic variations are simply slight differences in the genetic code. The key is to know which form of the variation you carry so that you can make appropriate lifestyle choices. And that is the beauty of genetic testing. It can tell you more about the way you're built so that you can tailor your lifestyle to fit your biology.