DNA | Estrogen
Did you know that approximately 80% of breast cancers occur in women with no family history? Pretty terrifying, right?
Estrogen positively and negatively affects the functioning of several estrogen-sensitive target tissues such as breast, ovarian, uterus, bones and brain cells.
Research shows that an increased lifetime exposure to estrogen, along with the production of harmful estrogen metabolites in the liver, are strong risk indicators for developing breast and other estrogen-positive cancers.
Gene variations associated with a reduced ability to detoxify estrogen, the potential for DNA damage, the risk from environmental carcinogens including the contraceptive Pill and IVF.
Benefits of the DNA | Estrogen test
- Provides information that can be used to assess your risk for inefficient estrogen detox, and estrogen associated imbalances and illnesses
- Includes key genes involved in the making of estrogen and the breakdown (metabolism) of estrogen in Phase I and Phase II liver detoxification
- Offers direction on how to personalise your diet, supplement, environment and lifestyle choices to improve how your body metabolises estrogen
- Young women considering going on the contraceptive Pill. It can help them better understand: 1. Their body's ability to detox estrogen. 2. Whether the Pill maybe contribute to estrogen excess and associated health issues. 3. If her body is more prone to generating DNA-damaging estrogen metabolites from estrogen.
- Women who suffer from estrogen-dominant conditions such as endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome and uterine fibroid tumours
- Women considering oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy or bio-identical hormone supplementation
- Women who are considering in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) which involves high doses of sex hormones
- Men who have estrogen excess resulting in 'moobs' (male boobs), cellulite, weight gain around their hips and thighs, infertility, increased prostate cancer risk, and/or where biochemistry tests have shown raised levels of estrogen and estrogen metabolites, or low levels of testosterone and progesterone in relation to estrogen
- Men and woman who have had a longer lifetime exposure to estrogen such as a woman who started menstruating earlier than normal
- Men or women with a family history of breast, ovarian, colon or prostate cancer which were caused by estrogen. This test does not, however, test for BRCA mutations. It is for cancers where nutrition, environment and lifestyle choices are the suspected cause.
- People who have had an estrogen-receptor positive cancer
Phase I of estrogen detoxification in the liver
A Phase I cytochrome P450 enzyme that converts environmental procarcinogens into reactive intermediates that have carcinogenic effects. It is further involved in the oxidative metabolism of estrogens.
Catalyses the 4-hydroxylation of estradiol and active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and arylamines.
Catalyses reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and other lipids as an integral part of the estrogen metabolism pathway.
Provides antioxidant activity within the cell, necessary for decreasing oxidative damage caused by reactive estrogen metabolites.
Phase II of estrogen detoxification in the liver
Responsible for the removal of xenobiotics, carcinogens, and products of oxidative stress, which include reactive estrogen metabolites.
A member of a superfamily of proteins that catalyse the conjugation of reduced glutathione, and is responsible for removal of reactive products of estrogen metabolism.
Influences the levels of certain hormones and is involved in the methylation and inactivation of catechol estrogens.
MTHFR is a key enzyme in the folate metabolism pathway - directing folate from the diet either to DNA synthesis or homocysteine re-methylation. Decreased MTHFR enzyme activity has been associated with increased premenopausal breast cancer risk with longer duration of estrogen exposure.
Involved in the inactivation of estrogens and bio-activation of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Quinone Reductase is primarily involved in the detoxification of potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic quinones derived from tobacco smoke, diet and estrogen metabolism.
Factor V Leiden gene mutation is characterised by a poor anticoagulant response to Activated Protein C and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. This gene is included because estrogen excess or dominance (more estrogen than progesterone) can increase the risk of clotting. Increased estrogen coupled with a factor V mutation can lead to an increased risk of clotting or thrombosis on the contraceptive Pill and on HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy).
DNA | Skin
DNA | Skin analyses genetic variations on 18 genes associated with key areas involved in skin health and ageing. These are collagen formation, protection from sun and UV exposure, inflammation and protection from oxidative stress.
Key areas analysed
- Sun damage, protection and repair
- Sun sensitivity and pigmentation
- Firmness and elasticity
- Protection from oxidative stress
- Detoxification and skin sensitivity
Buccal (cheek) lining swab - this is just a simple, painless firm rub with a long earbud (the swab) on the inside of your cheek.
Average processing time
The science behind these DNA reports
Once the DNAlysis lab receives your DNA sample, they use a process called Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to copy the DNA in your genes many times over, so that they have ample material with which to analyse your genetic material. They then look for unique DNA sequences in your genes, and if they spot changes from the norm, they mark those as risk factors.
Over the years, they have noticed who people that show variations in the gene markers involved in carcinogen metabolism, metabolism of steroid hormones and detoxification, are often part of a subpopulation of women and men with higher lifetime exposure to estrogens, estrogen metabolites and other carcinogens.
By understanding this connection and your unique genetic variability, they can make a holistic assessment of your risks associated with inefficient estrogen detox and provide practical advice on how to reduce these risks.
You can then pair your results with our advanced, home-based hormone metabolites biochemistry tests to measure and track your estrogen detox.
Pair with these biochemistry tests
You could order these tests to measure and track the impact of your genetic variations on your biochemistry:
It may sound like something out of a sci-fi movie, but genetic testing is a powerful health tool that can give you a deep understanding of how your body works.
At the heart of it is the molecule DNA. Every single cell in our bodies – from our heart to skin, blood and bone – contains a complete set of our DNA. This powerful molecule carries our genetic code and determines all manner of traits, from our eye colour to aspects of our personalities and, of course, our health.
Interestingly, 99.9% of the DNA from two people is identical. It’s the other 0.1% of DNA code sequences that make us unique.
What are genes?
Genes are segments of DNA that contain the instructions your body needs to make each of the many thousands of proteins required for life. Each gene is comprised of thousands of combinations of ‘letters’ which make up your genetic code. The code gives the instructions to make the proteins required for proper development and function.
What are gene variations?
An example of a genetic variation is that one ‘letter’ may be replaced by another. These variations can lead to changes in the resulting proteins being made. For example, a ‘C’ may be changed to a ‘G’ at a point in the genetic code. When the variation affects only one genetic ‘letter’ it is called a 'Single Nucleotide Polymorphism', or 'SNP' (pronounced “snip”).
Variations can however also affect more than one ‘letter’. Genetic tests look at specific chromosomes, genes or proteins, and the variations that occur within them, to make observations about disease or disease risk, body processes or physical traits.
Are gene variations bad?
In general, variations should not be considered good or bad. Rather, genetic variations are simply slight differences in the genetic code. The key is to know which form of the variation you carry so that you can make appropriate lifestyle choices. And that is the beauty of genetic testing. It can tell you more about the way you're built so that you can tailor your lifestyle to fit your biology.