DNA | Methylation Panel



Many important processes in your body rely on healthy methylation. Your methylation genes and the right nutritional choices will determine how well you methylate. Problems with methylation are involved in neurological dysfunction, ADHD, autism, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease and cancer.

The good news is that methylation can be 'supported' through the right nutrition, supplements.

A methylation DNA test can show whether your body has any genetic 'misspellings' ('variations' or 'SNP's') for coding enzymes involved in methylation. If you do, you might have signs of imbalances in your biochemistry and symptoms in your body. You can measure and track these biochemical imbalances with a methylation biochemistry test. 

Pairing a DNA test + a methylation biochemistry test is a great way to getting a lot of good info with which to start creating your personalised methylation support protocol.

  • B vitamins provide building blocks for growing cells, which are constantly being renewed, and play an important role in many physiological processes
  • B vitamins also supply some of the chemicals necessary for protecting our genes, so that our DNA doesn’t accumulate damage from the wear and tear in the daily lives of our cells
  • These vitamins – including folate, vitamins B6 and B12 – help make new DNA for cells that are constantly growing and renewing themselves. Folate is also involved in turning many genes on and off, and also helps repair DNA
  • The process of DNA repair is called methylation
  • Although B vitamins are only required in small amounts, they are crucial for methylation and in producing new DNA
  • SNPs found on genes that regulate B-vitamin associated biochemical pathways may influence an individual’s requirements for these essential nutrients
  • Genes analysed

    • MTHFR
    • MTR
    • MTRR
    • CBS
    • COMT

    More about the genes analysed

    MTHFR (Methylenetetrahydrofoltate Reductase)

    • MTHFR 677 C>T
    • MTHFR 1298 A>C

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is a riboflavin-dependent (FAD) enzyme that catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate (THF) to 5-methyl-THF.

    It is a key enzyme in the folate metabolism pathway, directing folate from the diet either to DNA synthesis or homocysteine remethylation, a process by which homocysteine is converted back to Methionine.

    The two polymorphisms described, occur at relatively high frequencies in the population, approximately 10-30%, and lower the activity of the MTHFR enzyme.

    MTR (Methionine Synthase)

    • MTR 2756 A>G

    The methionine synthase (MS) enzyme, encoded by MTR, catalyses the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. This reaction is vitamin B-12 dependent, and activity is essential to supply methionine for SAM synthesis and to prevent accumulation of homocysteine and SAH.

    There is a common polymorphism which affects the functional site of the protein and hence the levels of circulating folate and homocysteine.

    MTRR (Methionine Synthase Reductase)

    • MTRR 66 A>G

    Methionine Synthase Reductase is involved in the reductive regeneration of cob(I)alamin (vitamin B12) cofactor required for the maintenance of methionine synthase in a functional state.

    It catalyses methylcobalamin, an essential cofactor of methionine synthase (MS), which is essential for maintaining adequate intracellular pools of methionine and is also responsible for maintaining homocysteine concentrations at non-toxic levels.

    CBS (Cystathionine β Synthase)

    • CBS 699 C>T

    CBS is a vitamin B6 dependent enzyme, which catalyses the irreversible conversion of homocysteine to cystathionine. It is directly involved in the removal of homocysteine from the methionine cycle, thus any alterations in its activity could affect homocysteine levels. Cystathionine is then converted to cysteine. Together with glutamate and glycine, glutathione can then be produced.

    COMT (Catechol-O-Methyltransferase)

    • COMT Val158Met (472 G>A)

    COMT catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catecholamines, including the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. This O-methylation results in one of the major degradative pathways of the catecholamine transmitters.

    In addition to its role in the metabolism of endogenous substances, COMT is important in the metabolism of catechol drugs used in the treatment of hypertension, asthma and Parkinson disease.

    Soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) helps control the levels of certain hormones and is also involved in methylation and inactivation of catechol oestrogens. A genetic variant of the COMT gene reduces the activity of the enzyme and has been associated with breast and ovarian cancer; substance use disorder, and mental disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety, bipolar and depression.

    Test type

    DNA test

    Sample required

    Buccal (cheek) lining swab

    Average processing time

    14 working days

    Understanding genetics

    It may sound like something out of a sci-fi movie, but genetic testing is a powerful health tool that can give you a deep understanding of how your body works.

    At the heart of it is the molecule DNA. Every single cell in our bodies – from our heart to skin, blood and bone – contains a complete set of our DNA. This powerful molecule carries our genetic code and determines all manner of traits, from our eye colour to aspects of our personalities and, of course, our health. Interestingly, 99.9% of the DNA from two people is identical. It’s the other 0.1% of DNA code sequences that make us unique.

    What are genes

    Genes are segments of DNA that contain the instructions your body needs to make each of the many thousands of proteins required for life. Each gene is comprised of thousands of combinations of ‘letters’ which make up your genetic code. The code gives the instructions to make the proteins required for proper development and function.

    What are genetic variations

    An example of a genetic variation is that one ‘letter’ may be replaced by another. These variations can lead to changes in the resulting proteins being made. For example, a ‘C’ may be changed to a ‘G’ at a point in the genetic code. When the variation affects only one genetic ‘letter’ it is called a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, or SNP (pronounced “snip”). Variations can however also affect more than one ‘letter’. Genetic tests look at specific chromosomes, genes or proteins, and the variations that occur within them, to make observations about disease or disease risk, body processes or physical traits. 

    Are genetic variations bad

    In general, variations should not be considered good or bad. Rather, genetic variations are simply slight differences in the genetic code. The key is to know which form of the variation you carry so that you can make appropriate lifestyle choices. And that is the beauty of genetic testing. It can tell you more about the way you're built so that you can tailor your lifestyle to fit your biology. 

    The science behind your DNA report

    Once the DNAlysis lab receives your DNA sample, they use a process called Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to copy the DNA in your genes many times over, so that they have ample material with which to analyse your genetic material. They then look for unique DNA sequences in your genes, and if they spot changes from the norm, they mark those as risk factors.