The ADIPOQ gene encodes adiponectin, which is expressed in adipose (fat) tissue. It plays a role in the modulation of a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation. It is expressed in adipose tissue exclusively.
Genetic variations in this gene are associated with adiponectin deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.
What is adiponectin? Adiponectin is a protein hormone encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is involved in several metabolic processes including regulating glucose, fatty acid breakdown, insulin production and sensitivity. Adiponectin suppresses metabolic functions that can increase glucose and endocrine instability.
Adiponectin exerts remarkable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. In the liver, it enhances insulin sensitivity, reduces hepatic glucose output, and increases fatty acid oxidation. Glucose use and fatty acid oxidation are also stimulated in the muscle. Plasma adiponectin is strongly associated with various components of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes. Caloric restriction increases circulating levels by stimulating production through the bone marrow adipose tissue. Adiponectin levels are inversely correlated to body fat percentage in overweight adults.
Glucocorticoids inhibit gene expression and production of adiponectin in humans while increasing glucose and insulin.
Cysteine, aerobic exercise, caloric restriction, low carb diet, Mediterranean diet, low methionine diet, garlic, histidine, limonene, B3 (Nicotinamide riboside), omega 3, resveratrol, and SAMe are known agonist cofactors that can upregulate adiponectin.