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The BCO1 gene is responsible for making a protein - BCMO1-  that is involved in the conversion of beta-carotene into retinoic acid (the active form of vitamin A) that can be used by the body.

Vitamin A is crucial for your brain, immune system, skin, eyes, teeth, bones and for the formation of hormones. Vitamin A protects our eyes and skin from UV damage and is important for brain function.

The GG allele is considered the risk allele because it reduces the enzymatic function of converting beta-carotene to retinol by 51%.