The incidence of CVD, obesity and DM2 is rising at an alarming rate. CVD is the leading cause of mortality for both men and women in the developed world; obesity, insulin resistance and DM2 significantly predispose someone to develop CVD, yet these conditions are potentially avoidable.
If we are to make an impact on the serious health and economic consequences of these diseases, we need to identify risk early enough for people to make lifestyle changes or seek medical help to avoid becoming a part of the rising statistics.
Cardiometabolic risk has been defined as 'the cluster of modifiable risk factors and markers that identify individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease) and type 2 diabetes.'
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)’s Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) has identified the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance syndrome as a major risk factor for DM2 and CVD. NCEP-ATP III criteria for identifying metabolic syndrome include:
- Hypertension/elevated blood pressure
- Abdominal obesity
- Atherogenic dyslipidemia (low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, elevated LDL cholesterol)
- Prothrombotic/pro-inflammatory state
- Insulin resistance/glucose intolerance