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Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP)  plays a key role in the metabolism of HDL and mediates the exchange of lipids between lipoproteins, resulting in the eventual uptake of cholesterol by hepatocytes (reverse cholesterol transport). High plasma CETP concentration is associated with reduced HDL-C concentrations. CETP is a strong and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CETP plays a key role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and regulates reverse cholesterol transport, by which excess cholesterol is removed from peripheral tissues and returned to the liver for elimination. This gene's main function is involved in reverse cholesterol transport, triglycerides, and glucose metabolism.

The G allele is associated with increased plasma CETP, lower HDL-C and increased cardiovascular disease risk. GG genotype responds well to statin therapy.