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The DBP gene encodes the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) which is the major plasma carrier for vitamin D and its metabolites.

Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is the major carrier protein of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) in the circulation, where it may serve roles in maintaining stable levels during times of decreased 25(OH) availability and in regulating delivery of 25(OH) D to target tissues.

Medium to high impact genetic variations in this gene has been linked to alterations in bone density in several populations. One of the mechanisms by which DBP may alter bone health involves regulating vitamin D bioavailability. DBP-bound vitamin is thought to be relatively unavailable to target tissues, and thus alterations in DBP levels or affinity could lead to changes in vitamin D bioactivity. As a result, functional vitamin D status may differ greatly between individuals with similar total 25(OH) D levels. Additionally, DBP may have independent roles in macrophage and osteoclast activation.

DBP also plays a role in immunomodulatory as well as in the protracted innate immune-related inflammation response to tissue injury or repeated infection. Indeed, DBP and vitamin D may jointly or independently contribute to a variety of adverse health outcomes unrelated to classical notions of their function in bone and mineral metabolism.