There are two "types" of methylation that happen in your body - DNA methylation and methylation.
DNA methylation is a biological process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. It is an epigenetic mechanism that can change the activity of a DNA segment without altering its sequence. DNA methylation can turn on and off gene expression/regulation.
Methylation is the addition of a methyl group to a substrate. A methyl group is a small molecule made of one carbon and three hydrogen atoms. Methyl groups are added or removed from proteins or nucleic acids and may change the way these molecules act in the body.
This type of methylation is catalyzed by enzymes O-methyltransferases, 5-O-methylations and methionine synthase which are involved in important biochemical processes such as detoxification, neurotransmission, hormone metabolism, cellular protection, and immune function.
If you're not methylating properly, you may end up with high levels of homocysteine. Excess homocysteine can lead to inflammation and free radical damage, especially in your blood vessels. 4. Mood and mental health issues: mood swings, depression, anxiety, bipolar, OCD, etc.
The methylation pathway is made of 3 important biochemical cycles, namely the methionine cycle, folate cycle, and homocysteine transsulfuration cycle and each of these requires certain important co-factors called methyl donors nutrients from your diet and supplementation choices to ensure that it is functioning optimally. This is especially true if you have high impact genetic variations in the key genes involved in methylation. These include MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, BHMT, PEMT, SUOX, CBS, MAT1A, MAO-A, COMT, AHCY, eNOS, OTC, VDR, SHMT1, GNMT, and DHPR.